Speed Breeding its types, Applications and Challenges

Speed Breeding its types, Applications and Challenges
Speed Breeding its types, Applications and Challenges

1. History:

Speed breeding and its types. Speed breeding, a crop breeding technique initially created by NASA in the eighties to assist with developing yields in space, can rush the most common way of growing new crop varieties and numerous Indian plant researchers are now showing interest in investigating the idea. Speed breading is another innovation that expects to abbreviate the agricultural breeding cycle and speed up crop improvement through quick age progression. Developing harvests in a speed breeding specific development chamber speeds up research on adult plant phenotyping, crossing, mutants, and transformation. NASA experiments to develop wheat in space were the motivation for University of Queensland researchers to develop the world’s first ‘speed breeding’ methods here on planet Earth.

2. Procedure includes developing plants under speed breeding:

The procedure includes developing plants under continuous light (20-22hours). This allows plants to photosynthesize for longer, resulting about quicker development. With this method, four to six generations of wheat plants can be developed each year instead of two generations under normal development conditions. The outcome is scientists develop new crop varieties quicker. The duration of the seed-to-seed cycle is one of the critical bottlenecks in the advancement of plant research and breeding. In this unique circumstance, speed breeding (SB), depending for the most part on photoperiod extension, temperature control, and early seed harvest, can possibly speed up the rate of plant improvement. A principal challenge in implementing speed breeding is the exact control of the developing circumstances (especially the photoperiod, temperature and humidity) and disease or pest infestation. Scientists at the Biosciences eastern and focal Africa-International Livestock Research Institute Hub, known as the BecA-ILRI Center and the John Innes Center, UK, are bringing the advantages of Speed breeding to Africa. Researchers Peter Emmrich and Oluwaseyi Shorinola are applying speed breeding to grass pea and wheat breeding in Africa, showing the way that the method can be utilized for major and orphan crop breeding.

3. Types:

Speed breeding and its types. The most appropriate selection strategies agreeable with speed breeding are single seed descent (SSD), single pod descent (SPD) and single plant selection (SPS) techniques.

4. Applications:

Speed breeding can be used to abbreviate generation time and to speed up crop breeding and research program including improvement of mapping populations, phenotyping adult plant attributes, hasten backcrossing and pyramiding of characteristics, mutant studies and transformation.

5. Development of homozygous lines:

Speed breeding strategies have been used on different crops to develop homozygous lines after initial crosses of chosen parents with free attributes quickly. The procedure relies upon the manipulation of photoperiod, light intensity, temperature, soil nutrition, soil moisture and high-density planting. These techniques have been utilized to induce early flowering and seed set, decreasing the time taken to produce each breeding generation. The strategy takes into consideration the development of 3 to 9 reproducing ages each year. This is great for accelerated breeding and population evaluation across the target production conditions including different determination strategies like SSD, SPD and SPS.

6. Challenges:

The utilization of speed breeding technique is a significant way to deal with conventional breeding programs. The innovation requires expertise and complementary plant phenomics offices, proper framework and financial support for innovative work. For these assets to be set up expects that speed breeding methodologies are perceived as fundamental for conventional plant breeding, marker assisted determination and genetic engineering.

Sadia Qadir1 & Shehr Yar Abid2 & Mehmood Zar3
University of Agriculture Faisalabad
Department: PBG & Entomology

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